The Interventions We’ve Identified Are Linked Below
Those found through an expert review process to meet the Congressional “Top Tier” evidence standard are denoted “Top Tier”; those found to require only one more step to meet this standard – e.g., replication of their sizeable, sustained effects in an additional well-conducted randomized controlled trial – are denoted “Near Top Tier”. The other listed interventions have been found promising by Coalition staff but have not yet been identified by the expert panel as Top Tier or Near Top Tier – in some cases, because of study limitations (such as only short-term follow-up) that indicate the need for additional testing.1
Top Tier Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (A foster care intervention for severely delinquent youths): Randomized controlled trials show sizable reductions in youths’ criminal activity and (for girls) teen pregnancy.
Near Top Tier Parent Management Training – the Oregon Model (PMTO; a parent training program for recently-separated, single mothers with boys aged 6-10): Randomized controlled trial shows sizable decrease in criminal behavior of the boys over nine years.
Amity Prison Therapeutic Community (Provides counseling/decision-making skills to inmates with drug problems, to prepare them for re-entry into the community): Randomized controlled trial shows reduction in reincarceration rate, and increase in average time to reincarceration.
Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement – HOPE (High-intensity supervision program for probationers at risk of a probation violation): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable reduction in likelihood of re-arrest.
Montreal Prevention Program (Delinquency prevention program for disruptive elementary school boys): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable increase in high school graduation rates, and decrease in criminal behavior, in early adulthood.
Multisystemic Therapy for Juvenile Offenders (A treatment targeting multiple factors linked to anti-social juvenile behavior): Randomized controlled trials show sizable decrease in criminal behavior by juvenile offenders, but effectiveness may depend critically (i) on close adherence to the intervention’s key features and (ii) population/setting in which it is implemented.
Philadelphia Low-Intensity Community Supervision Program (for low-risk criminal offenders on probation or parole): Randomized controlled trial shows no increase in crime compared to the usual, more-intensive supervision. This suggests the program may be a viable way to reduce costs in the criminal justice system.