1 Forgatch, Marion. Parenting Through Change: A Training Manual.” Oregon Social Learning Center, 1994.
2 Other versions of PMTO serve families – including two-parent families – with children of either gender exhibiting conduct problems (e.g., aggression, delinquency, and substance use).
3 The cost of training and certifying staff is about $19,165 per staff person, plus an annual cost of about $3,700 per staff person for ongoing coaching and recertification to maintain faithful program implementation. These costs of training staff would presumably be spread over the many program participants they work with.
Click here to go to PMTO’s website.
Beldavs, Zintars, Marion Forgatch, Gerald Patterson, and David DeGarmo. “Reducing the Detrimental Effects of Divorce: Enhancing the Parental Competence of Single Mothers. In N. Heinrichs, K. Haalweg, and M. Dopfner, Strengthening Families: Evidence-based Approaches to Support Child Mental Health, 2006, pp. 143–185.
DeGarmo, David, Gerald Patterson, and Marion Forgatch. “How Do Outcomes in a Specified Parent Training Intervention Maintain or Wane Over Time?” Prevention Science, 2004, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 73-89.
DeGarmo, David, and Marion Forgatch. “Early Development of Delinquency Within Divorced Families: Evaluating a Randomized Preventive Intervention Trial.” Developmental Science, 2005, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 229-239.
Forgatch, Marion, and David DeGarmo. “Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers.” Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention, 2007, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 681-702.
Forgatch, Marion, and David DeGarmo. “Parenting Through Change: An Effective Prevention Program for Single Mothers.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1999, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 711-24.
Forgatch, Marion, Gerald Patterson, David DeGarmo, and Zintars Beldavs. “Testing the Oregon delinquency model with 9-year follow-up of the Oregon Divorce Study.” Development and Psychopathology, 2009, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 637-60.
Martinez, Charles, and Marion Forgatch. “Preventing Problems With Boys’ Noncompliance: Effects of a Parent Training Intervention for Divorcing Mothers.” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2001, vol. 69, no. 3, 416-28.
Patterson, Gerald R., Marion S. Forgatch, and David S. DeGarmo. “Cascading effects following intervention.” Development and Psychopathology, 2010, vol. 22, pp. 949-970.
Bjørknes, Ragnild, Reidar Jakobsen, and Ane Naerde. “Recruiting ethnic minorities to evidence-based parent training. Who will come and how?” Children and Youth Services Review, 2011, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 351-357.
Bjørknes, Ragnild, John Kjøbli, Terje Manger, and Reidar Jakobsen. “Parent training among ethnic minorities: Parenting practices as mediators of change in child conduct problems.” Family Relations, 2012, vol. 61, pp. 101-114.
Bjørknes, Ragnild and Terje Manger. “Can parent training alter parent practice and reduce conduct problems in ethnic minority children? A randomized controlled trial.” Prevention Science, 2013, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 52-63.
Bullard, Lisha, Marissa Wachlarowicz, Jamie DeLeeuw, James Snyder, Sabina Low, Marion Forgatch, and David DeGarmo. “Effects of the Oregon Model of Parent Management Training (PMTO) on Marital Adjustment in New Stepfamilies: A Randomized Trial.” Journal of Family Psychology, 2010, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 485-496.
DeGarmo, David, and Marion Forgatch. “Efficacy of Parent Training for Stepfathers: From Playful Spectator and Polite Stranger to Effective Stepfathering.” Parenting: Science and Practice, 2007, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 331-355.
Forgatch, Marion. Parenting Through Change: A Training Manual.” Oregon Social Learning Center, 1994.
Forgatch, Marion and Gerald Patterson. “Parent Management Training – the Oregon Model: An Intervention for Antisocial Behavior in Children and Adolescents.” In John Weisz and Alan Kazdin, Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for Children and Adolescents, 2010, pp. 159-178.
Hagen, Kristine Amlund, Terje Ogden, and Gunnar Bjørnebekk. “Treatment Outcomes and Mediators of Parent Management Training: A One-Year Follow-Up of Children with Conduct Problems.” Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 2011, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 165-178.
Kjøbli, John and Terje Ogden. “A randomized effectiveness trial of Brief Parent Training in primary care settings.” Prevention Science, 2012, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 616-626.
Parenting Through Change. National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices, 2012.
Sigmarsdóttir, Margaret, David S. DeGarmo, Marion S. Forgatch, and Edda Vikar Guðmundsdóttir. “Development and aging: Treatment effectiveness of PMTO for children’s behavior problems in Iceland: Assessing parenting practices in a randomized controlled trial.” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 2013, vol. 54, pp. 468–476.