The Programs We’ve Identified Are Linked Below

Programs identified as having the most credible evidence of effectiveness, based on careful review in consultation with outside experts, are categorized as “Top Tier” or “Near Top Tier” (see sidebar for definitions). The other listed programs have been found promising but not yet Top Tier or Near Top Tier due to study limitations (such as only short-term follow-up) that underscore the need for additional testing prior to larger-scale implementation. As a nonprofit philanthropic foundation, we receive no financial benefit from any program, enabling us to serve as an impartial reviewer of the evidence.

Top Tier Career Academies (Small learning communities in low-income high schools, offering academic and career/technical courses as well as workplace opportunities): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable positive impact on earnings of participants eight years after their scheduled high school graduation.

Near Top Tier Nevada’s Reemployment and Eligibility Assessment Program (a program for Unemployment Insurance (UI) claimants, providing review of their UI eligibility and personalized reemployment services): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable increase in earnings and net savings to the taxpayer.

Canadian Self-Sufficiency Project (Earnings supplements for long-term welfare recipients who find full-time work and leave welfare): Randomized controlled trials show sizable increase in participants’ employment rates, job earnings, and family income; and reductions in poverty and welfare dependency.

Los Angeles Jobs-First Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program (to quickly move welfare recipients into the workforce): Randomized controlled trial shows sizable increase in employment rates and job earnings, reduction in welfare dependency, and savings to the government.

Minnesota Family Investment Program (Earnings supplements for welfare recipients who find work): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable increase in employment and earnings, and reduction in poverty rates, for single-parent, long-term welfare recipients (but not other welfare recipients).

Per Scholas Job Training Program (“Sectoral” – i.e., industry-specific – job training for unemployed, disadvantaged workers): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable increase in employment and earnings.

Portland Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) Program (to quickly move welfare recipients into the workforce): Randomized controlled trial shows sizable increase in employment rates and job earnings, reduction in welfare dependency, and savings to the government.

Riverside Greater Avenues for Independence (GAIN) Program (to quickly move welfare recipients into the workforce): Randomized controlled trial shows sizable increase in employment rates and job earnings, reduction in welfare dependency, and savings to the government, especially for single parents.

Wisconsin Regional Training Partnership (“Sectoral” – i.e., industry-specific – job training for unemployed, disadvantaged workers): Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable increase in earnings.