The Programs We’ve Identified Are Linked Below

Programs identified as having the most credible evidence of effectiveness, based on careful review in consultation with outside experts, are categorized as “Top Tier” or “Near Top Tier” (see sidebar for definitions). The other listed programs have been found promising but not yet Top Tier or Near Top Tier due to study limitations (such as only short-term follow-up) that underscore the need for additional testing prior to larger-scale implementation. As a nonprofit philanthropic foundation, we receive no financial benefit from any program, enabling us to serve as an impartial reviewer of the evidence.

Top Tier Carrera Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program (A comprehensive, year-round youth development program for economically disadvantaged teens): Multi-site randomized controlled trial shows sizable reductions in teen pregnancy and births, and increases in high school graduation and college enrollment.

Top Tier Treatment Foster Care Oregon (A foster care intervention for severely delinquent youths): Randomized controlled trials show sizable reductions in youths’ criminal activity and (for girls) teen pregnancy.

Top Tier Nurse-Family Partnership (A nurse home visitation program for low-income, pregnant women): Randomized controlled trials show major impact on life outcomes of the mothers and their children.

Health Care Program for First-Time Adolescent Mothers and their Infants: Randomized controlled trial shows a sizable reduction in subsequent teen pregnancies and increase in rate of child immunizations.